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www.learnenglish.org.in

 

Param Ji:

  • P3yonline.com
  • With the blessings of this powerful saint, I have ventured to help those students to take competitive exams confidently. Generally students are well acquainted in other branches of study but lack proficiency in the English language.

Online English Coaching for Competitive Exams:

PMT Exams like COMEDK, Manipal, JIPMER, BITSAT Other Exams like

  • MBA, NDA, CDS, IES, BANK PO
  • RRB, GRE, GMAT, SAT, CTET, TOEFL, CAT
  • MAT, BBA, BBS

www.learnenglish.org.in

How to Prepare for the English Test

Practical Importance of learning English Language

English Language is not difficult to master. To understand the language the basics of Grammar should be comprehended. The science of grammar teaches us how a language is spoken and written correctly and effectively. Grammar then is primarily concerned with the formation and classification of words and sentences and their practical significance in learning the English Language. It is debatable that to master the English Language one should first practice to listen, speak, read and write English and then learn the rules of standard English Grammar. It is advisable to study grammar separately, positioning the rules of English grammar (with exceptions to each rule of grammar) in one’s reading and listening materials. Unfortunately, there are just as many exceptions, to each rules as there are rules in English.  Sometimes English is weird and unexplainable, so instead the best thing to do is just memorize the strange exceptions and move on. There are hundreds of grammar rules but the basic ones refer to sentence structure and parts of speech, which are noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition and conjunction.

Until the 17th century the term “grammar” in Eng­lish was applied only to the study of Latin. The best-known early English grammarian was Ben Jonson, who also based his work on Latin. The Latin classification of the parts of speech, which included eight word-classes, differed from the system adopted by modern grammars in that the substantives and adjectives were grouped together as two kinds of nouns, while the participle was pre­sented as a separate part of speech. The age of prescriptive grammar began in the sec­ond half of the 18th century. The most influential grammar of the period was R. Lowth’s Short Intro­duction to English Grammar, first published in 1762.

Grammar is important to pass examinations. There is no end to learn or mug up English Vocabulary or Grammar. The more you read, the more one would listen and comprehend English language. One should not only concentrate on the subject but extensively listen, speak, read and write English (whatever be its form prose, poetry, paragraph, stories, novels, news, audio or video clippings). Another useful thing would be watching English movies on the main stream movie channels like Star Movies, HBO, Sony PIX etc.. They do provide subtitles with the video and so you can understand the accent and usage of English language easily. Watch only two or three movies a week. Choose movies which would benefit you in some way. Watching movies from different genres like action, love stories, comedies, sci-fi, war movies etc. would help you polishing your overall personality along with the English language.

What are the Basic English Grammar Rules?

In any language there are basic rules the speaker or would be learner needs to understand before moving on to harder skills. English itself has basic rules that people need to follow for it to make sense to hearers and readers. Here are some basic English grammar rules that are easy to understand and easy to learn.

  • Only use capital letters for proper nouns, at the beginning of a sentence.
  • For every sentence there should be one noun and one verb. A sentence with more than one noun or verb is confusing to understand.
  • When a sentence is complete use appropriate punctuation. There is no need to have dual punctuation when ending a sentence.
  • If an apostrophe is needed make sure to use it to show ownership. An apostrophe is also used when words are abbreviated.
  • Whenever writing multiple sentences about the same subject or line of thought, use paragraphs to divide long segments of writing.
  • Should a line of thought require a list make sure to separate each article by a comma.
  • Make sure case and number of the subject and the verb match. If the noun is singular the verb should be singular as well.
  • When connecting two lines of thought in a sentence, use a conjunction to make things make better sense.
  • If you have two lines of thought that are similar feel free to use a semicolon to combine them.
  • Make sure to use the correct tense when writing or speaking English.
  • Try not to end a sentence with a preposition.
  • A conjunction word should not be used to start a sentence.
  • Sentences should be complete thoughts and not put in fragments.
  • Try not to use double negatives. Such as no not never.
  • Make sure to use words correctly.
  • Avoid repeating lines of thought in sentences.
  • Make sure paragraphs are complete, having three to five sentences each.
  • Concepts and Techniques on spelling and Narration should be taken care of.

Sometimes you can find patterns in English grammar, but sometimes English doesn’t make sense at all. For example, why are “read” (reed) and “read” (red) the same word, but pronounced differently depending on whether you’re speaking in the past or present tense? Or why is “mice” the plural of “mouse”, but “houses” is the plural of “house”? Studying English for an hour once a week isn’t usually enough to make any real progress. The best way to quickly improve your English is to spend at least a few minutes practicing every day. Immerse yourself as much as possible every time you study, and challenge yourself to listen to, read, and even say things in English that you think might be too difficult for you. If you want to speak English fluently, you need to make it an essential part of your everyday life. The right attitude can make the difference between failure and success. Stop thinking of yourself as someone who is learning English, and start thinking of yourself as someone who speaks English. It’s a small change, but it will make you feel more confident and help you to use the English you already know more effectively. This also means you need to start thinking in English. If you want to say the word “apple” in English, for example, right now you probably think of the word in your native language first, and then try to think about of the correct word in English. Instead, try imagining a picture of an apple, and then just think about the English word “apple”. Real fluency happens when you stop mentally translating conversations.

The simplest and perhaps the truest definition is ‘a language to talk about language’. Just as one cannot explain how a motor engine functions (or is failing to function) without naming words for its parts and their specific actions, so it is impossible to explore the function of words and the part they play in forming meaningful language without a naming procedure. It is impossible, for example, to offer a meaningful explanation for why we say ‘did it well’ rather than ‘did it good’.

English is an easy language because:

  • English Language has no genders. Apart from people, all objects are ‘neuter’, notmasculine’ or ‘feminine’. So you say ‘it’ for such things, and do not need to learn any genders.
  • It usually has easy verb endings. Apart from a few ‘irregular’ verbs, verb endings are easy, and hardly change.
  • Adjectives remain the same for all words – there are no different endings to learn.
  • The singular and plural pronoun ‘you’ is the same. There is no need to decide whether to use a polite form, or an intimate form, when speaking to someone.

The difficult parts of English are:

  • The spelling of a word may not show what the pronunciation (way of speaking) the word is. This is because English words come from many different sources.
  • English came from two main sources-old French, and old Anglo-Saxon, there is a very large vocabulary of words. Words with similar meaning may have come from both sources. For example, START (from Anglo-Saxon) and COMMENCE (from old French). The meaning is similar, but not precisely the same.

How to improve English for Competitive Exams:

English has been a very important section of every competitive or aptitude exam conducted in India. Without learning English, there’s no chance that you can clear any competitive exam. SSC exams, IBPS exams, UPSC exams, CAT, CMAT, SBI exams or any other exam, English has always been getting dedicated sections and 20-30% weight age in marks. Also, it helps in many other ways while you are preparing for competitive exams. It is also evident that most of the candidates face the problem of how to prepare and master English and get a very good score in the competitive exam they are opting for. Sometimes, it becomes a deciding factor in your selection for the job when scores in all other sections are generally average.

Things to do

  • Try to make a list of words and their meanings. You can save it in the form of a presentation. Test yourself from time to time to remember the meanings of the words.
  • Practice test papers online Browse website like:-

http://www.myenglishpages.com/site_php_files/exercises.php, http://englishteststore.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11387&Itemid=380, http://www.examenglish.com/leveltest/grammar_level_test.htm, https://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/tests, http://www.englishgrammar.org/exercises/, http://toeflpractice.ets.org/, https://www.4tests.com/toefl, http://www.ielts-exam.net/practice_tests/,

  • Manage your time
  • Most of the tests will have time constraint.
  • It is not that one cannot solve those problems but it is generally the lack of time.
  • Have a sound sleep, be focused on the questions, as the questions are very logical, and need proper concentration.
  • It is best to choose easy problems and solve them all in the given time.
  • Do not get stuck on tough or time-consuming questions eventually running short of time.
  • In the first round, answer questions that you think are very easy.
  • Then in the second round try to answer the questions, felt they are lengthy or time consuming.
  • Try shortcuts to solve the questions rather than conventional ways.
  • The English course provided is equivalent to a set norms of the International English Language testing system which assess the language abilities of candidates who need to study or work where English is required as the language of communication.
  • Mark any information you don’t understand in a particular section; keep a focus on one unit or a manageable group of exercises.
  • Recall after studying the section, stop and put what you have learned into your own words.
  • Read carefully and try to have an analytical ability to study the language. There are strategies for critical thinking. For instance ask yourself questions like:

What is the topic of the book or reading?

What issues are addressed?

What conclusion does the author reach about the issue(s)?

What are the author’s reasons for his or her statements or belief?

Is the author using facts, theory, or faith?

  • Everyday, practice writing an essay on any topic of your liking to be conversant with the language. The more you practice, more confidence you will gain in written and spoken English. Work out as many exercises seen in English books or available online.
  • Converse with others in English to know the language well enough. Talk to friends who are also learning English. Make a rule, perhaps for an hour, or when you go out together, you will only speak English to each other.

The more you practice, the more you will be confident of the language. Concentrate and focus on writing clear, simple correct short sentences first. Please study by using and understanding words with the help of  examples

  • This online course is designed to help students in solving English language questions in on objective format prepared after an analyses of the syllables and questions of different competitive examination.
  • Extensive exercises have been extracted from the last fifty previous years papers of various entrance examinations.
  • The objective of this coaching course of study is to present a scientific and analytic approach in learning the fundamentals of English Language endeavoring to present learning the modern concepts of English grammar and its usage in daily life.
  • This online customized course in learning English would help students to take any competitive exam without fear and with full understanding.
  • The capsule provided for learning by the candidate is designed to make this course readable and more attractive leading to success in building a progressive future.
  • The correctness in learning the fundamentals of English is stressed so that clarity is not comprised.
  • Special care has been taken to enable young scholars to learn and understand the art of writing correct sentences, while at the same time build a vocabulary in an easy way.
    • Such topics as the Tense, the Voice, the Narration, the Transformation, the Analysis, the Synthesis, the Article, the Punctuation, the Use of Prepositions, Idioms etc, have an important place in the process of all English writing, and have been dealt with exhaustively. Modern grammatical usage of Determiners, Modals and Non-finites find an important place in this Course design.
    • All the important chapters are followed by comprehensive and exhaustive multiple choice (MCQ’s) exercises for practice for students which are very useful in taking entrance exams.

Audio lessons will be provided to each candidate wherever necessary. Lesson materials and CD’s will be sent at your mailing address for learning and reference. These lessons mailed to you will be very informative, exhaustive and self explanatory, mostly in the form of interesting presentations. Each point in a lesson will be explained and exercises and tests will be given after every chapter.

  • English questions which have appeared in different competitive examinations from 2008 to 2016 according to their marks are listed below.
Question Type Marks
Reading and Comprehension 8
Spotting Errors 10
Sentence Improvement 5
Sentence Completion 5
Sentence Completion with variation 5
Synonym 4
Antonym 3
Vocabulary with Variation 5
Sentence Arrangement 5
Phrases/ Idioms 10
Spelling
Misc

Course Design

Course Content

Section – I

General Grammar

  • Parts of Speech

Traditional grammar classifies words based on eight parts of speech: the verb, the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the adverb, the preposition, the conjunction, and the interjection. Each part of speech explains not what the word is, but how the word is used. In fact, the same word can be a noun in one sentence and a verb or adjective in the next.

  • Noun
  • Adjective
  • Articles
  • Pronoun
  • Verb
  • Tense
  • Adverb
  • Preposition
  • Conjunction

Section – II

  • Phrase

A Phrase is a group of words which does not make complete sense.

Kinds of phrases: There are three types of phrases, namely:

  1. Adjective Phrase
  2. Adverb Phrase
  3. Noun Phrase
  • Clause

A group of words which forms a part of a sentence and contains a subject and a predicate is called a Clause.

Kinds of Clause: Clause are divided into two classes, namely:

  1. Principal Clause
  2. Subordinate Clause

Section – III

  • Subject and Predicates

Some of the most basic and important English grammar rules relate directly to sentence structure. Some of these rules specify that:

  • A singular subject needs a singular predicate.
  • A sentence needs to express a complete thought.

Another term for a sentence is an independent clause.

  • Clauses, like any sentence, have a subject and predicate too. If a group of words does not have a subject and predicate, it is a phrase.
  • If they can stand alone and make a complete thought, then they are independent and called sentences.
  • If they do not express a complete thought, they are called “dependent clauses.” An example of a dependent clause, which is not a sentence, is “when i finish my work”.

So, what are the other basic rules for sentence structure?

Basic to any language is the sentence, which expresses a complete thought and consists of a Subject and a Predicate.

  • The subject is the star of the sentence; the person, animal, or thing that is the focus of it.
  • The predicate will tell the action that the subject is taking or tell something about the subject.

Section – IV

  • Degrees of Comparison

Most adjective and adverbs can be turned into other forms of comparisons in many ways.

Section – V

  • Active and Passive Voice

We can begin a sentence either with the subject or object. This fact decides whether a sentence is active or passive.

Section – VI

  • Direct and Indirect Speech

Speech means a talk or a dialogue between two persons

Section – VII

  • Simple, Compound and Complex Sentence

A simple sentence has only one subject and predicate and a compound sentence must have two or more co-ordinate clauses having their own subject and predicate.

Section – VIII

  • Punctuation

To fully understand basic grammar rules, you also need to look at Punctuation rules.

  • All sentences must start with a capital, or upper case, letter.
  • Titles of people, books, magazines, movies, specific places, etc. are capitalized.
  • Organizations and compass points are capitalized.
  • Every sentence needs a punctuation mark at the end of it. These would include a period, exclamation mark, or question mark.
  • Colons are used to separate a sentence from a list of items, between two sentences when the second one explains the first, and to introduce a long direct quote.
  • Semicolons are used to take the place of a conjunction and are placed before introductory words like “therefore” or “however.” They are also used to separate a list of things if there are commas within each unit.
  • There are a lot of rules for commas. The basic ones are commas separate things in a series and go wherever there is a pause in the sentence. They surround the name of a person being addressed, separate the day of the month from the year in a date, and separate a town from the state.
  • Parentheses enclose things that clarify and enclose numbers and letters that are part of a list. Apostrophes are used in contractions to take the place of one or more letters and to show possession. An apostrophe and “s” is added if the noun is singular and an apostrophe alone is added if the noun is plural.

So, now you know some basic grammar rules and you’ll be well on your way to becoming a grammar expert.

Section – IX

  • Vocabulary Usage

After understanding parts of speech, you should think about improving your vocabulary by various methods. In this point, I would suggest you to prepare from a book on roots of words and how to make more words by using roots. Every word has its’ own root and by knowing and understanding that, you would get to know and understand many words related to it. E.g. By learning the root “dent” which means related to teeth, you can learn many words made from it like dentist, dental, dentinal, dentistry etc. To learn roots and words perfectly, we would suggest you a very popular and trustworthy book Word Power Made Easy by Norman Lewis . Go through this book with a focused and peaceful mind and your vocabulary would surely improve and that too, manifold.

 

Improve Your Vocabulary:

Why to improve your vocabulary? Vocabulary means knowledge of words (meaning of words). If you do not have a good vocabulary, you have to stop at every new word in the reading comprehension, and be puzzled what does it mean? So, when you don’t know the meaning of a word, it becomes very difficult to understand the gist of the Comprehension.

How to improve your vocabulary?

  • Start reading in English, anything…….  Newspapers, stories, comics, text books….anything, that keeps you immersed in English. New words gradually sink into your subconscious mind and become familiar.
  • Keep a notebook, Note down the new words you learned today and revise them periodically.
  • Keep a target and a schedule to learn a certain number of new words every day. You are the better person to decide the number,… I am not. Do not deviate from the schedule at any cost.

Use a pen while reading:

Do not read the Reading Comprehension like a movie novel. While going through the passage, your  three body organs should act in collaboration.

  • Eyes
  • Hand
  • Brain

Make a habit of finding valuable keywords quickly and underline those keywords with a pen (If the rules permit, otherwise use a dark pencil).            

Or

if you want you can take the notes of keywords on a plain paper, if  allowed by the authorities. So, if at all you have to read the Comprehension again you can go only through keywords, and not  through all the junk.

Take your pencil and make a circle on your choice, which you feel correct at the present moment.

Section – X

  • Idioms and Phrases
  • Foreign Words and Phrases
  • Rare and Apt Proverbs
  • Beautiful Quotations
  • Words Followed by Appropriate Prepositions
  • Appropriate Prepositions
  • Figures of Speech

 

Section – XI

  • Reading and Comprehension Ability

Reading And Comprehension

Comprehension is an exercise to test the student’s ability to comprehend which means “to understand and grasp” In comprehension of a long passage it is first of all important to comprehend the passage to bring out the central idea. Some students make a mistake in thinking of comprehension as summary on substance and begin paraphrasing in short forms. The question to be answered must require to be closely referred to the passage and not answered from one’s own ideas. First, the given passage should slowly and carefully be read over at least three times. While answering the questions on the given passage, it must be kept in mind that the answers much be derived from the passage itself. Sometimes you are required to give the summary or Central idea of the passage. The summary or central idea should be about one-third of the given passage.

The most important thing about Reading Comprehension (RC) is understanding what you read. Being able to read fast is also important, but remember that speed is always secondary to understanding. Below are some tips for exam-preparation as well as for general improvement. Tests may ask students to interpret information in a particular passage. No matter what the question, the key is to know what the passage actually says. Reading Comprehension section of various competitive exam include passages from several different content areas, you may be generally familiar with some of the material; however, no specific knowledge of the material is required. All questions are to be  answered on the basis of what is stated or implied in the reading material. The Reading Comprehension passages are accompanied by interpretive, applied and inferential questions. The questions provided in this section measure your ability to understand, analyze, and apply information and concepts presented in the written form.

Improving Comprehension

  • Develop a broad background: broaden your background knowledge by reading newspapers, magazines and books. Become interested in world events.
  • Know the structure of paragraphs: Good writers construct passage that have a beginning, middle and end. Often, the first sentence will give an overview that helps provides a framework for adding details.
  • Identify the type of reasoning: Observe carefully to see if the author uses effective reasoning, hypothesis, model building, induction or deduction, systematic thinking.
  • Anticipate and predict: Really smart readers try to anticipate what the author is trying to say and predict the future ideas and questions. If you are right, this reinforces one’s understating. If you are wrong, you make adjustments.
  • Create motivation and interest: Preview material, ask questions, and discuss ideas with classmates. The stronger your interest, the greater your comprehension.
  • Build a good vocabulary: The best way to improve your vocabulary is to use a dictionary regularly. Concentrate on roots, prefixes and endings.

This section evaluates the following abilities:

  • Understanding words and statements in reading passages:
  • Understanding the logical relationships between significant points and concepts in the reading passages:
  • Drawing inferences from facts and statements in the reading passages:
  • Understanding and following the development of quantitative concepts as they are presented in verbal material:
  • Don’t rush yourself.It is natural that you will start a little slowly and then build up speed as you gain familiarity with the passage.
  • Read all the questions first (if the exam format permits this). This will help you zero in on the relevant portions when you start reading the passage.
  • Read actively.This means, try to anticipate the next sentence. Reading this way will help you engage with the passage more closely.
  • Make notes to capture the essence of each paragraphwithin the passage. The first sentence of the paragraph usually conveys the main idea or theme of the paragraph.
  • Don’t try to memorize anything. Memorizing consumes time and is not very useful.
  • Get the overview.After you have read the passage, ask yourself the following questions:
    (1) what is the passage as a whole trying to say?

(2) How does each paragraph contribute to the broad message of the passage?

Books Consulted

  1. A Book of English Idioms by V. H. Collins
  2. A Dictionary of Modern English Usage by H. W. Fowler
  3. A Grammar of English Words by H. E. Palmer
  4. A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English by A. S. Hornby
  5. A Hand Book of English Grammar by R. W. Zandvoort
  6. A Practical English Grammar by A. J. Thomson & A.V. Martinet
  7. A Remedial English Grammar for Foreign Students by F.T. Wood
  8. A Second Book of English Idioms by V. H. Collins
  9. An A.B.C. of English Usage by V. H. Collins
  10. Contemporary English Grammar, Structure and Composition by David Green
  11. Current English Usage by F. T. Wood
  12. Desk Book of Correct English by Michael West & P. F. Kimber
  13. English Grammar, Composition & Usage by J. C. Nesfield
  14. High School English Grammar & Composition by P. C. Wren & H. Martin
  15. Modern English Grammar by J. C. Nesfield
  16. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English (2010 and 2014)

 

Books Recommended for Purchase

  • How to prepare for the T.O.E.F.L.: Test of English As a Foreign Language (Barron’s How to prepare for the Test of English As a Foreign Language T.O.E.F.L) by Pamela J.Sharepe
  • Toefl Practice Tests by Educational Testing Service (Paperback)
  • Wren and Martin (Grammar book)
  • Common Errors in English Usage (Paul Brians)
  • RAPIDEX Book of Common Errors in English.
  • Common Errors in English (Martin Fornandoz)
  • Common Errors in English (R. Gupta’s) English/Hindi
  • Common Errors in English (Terry O’Brien)

 

  • After Extensive research and speculation work sheets and exercises have been given to be solved both at the end of each lesson and at the end of every section and course.
  • Also certain websites are recommended through which online papers in grammar and Reading Comprehension Passages are given.
  • Please note that the Reasoning and Coding and Decoding section which is a part of most competitive exams is not dealt with in this course. 

 

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